Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Cons of Universal Preschool

Carolina's 15 websites on the Cons of Universal Preschool:

1) Wikipedia
Opposing aspects of Univeral Preschool.
Rating: 10

2) Commonwealth Foundation
This article utters that a strong and growing body of literature shows that preschool produces virtually no lasting benefits for the majority of children.
Rating: 17

3) Palo Alto on Line
Several aspects of the Universal Preschool Program are questioned in this article--from costs to curriculum, and etc.
"The curriculum has gotten pushed back so kindergarten is much more strenuous than it used to be. There is homework in kindergarten," said Elissa Kaplan, who has taught at Preschool Family for about 10 years. "We don't allow enough time for kids to play and just be. I don't want to see the curriculum brought down."

4) Local
This article talks about the impact the Universal Preschool might have on development of a healthy attachment between children and their parents. It states that, "The institutionalization of young children and warning of the potential damage psychologically, emotionally, and physically to them of not only separation from their parents and home, but the introduction of early academics as well."

5) Public School Review
This article brings up that preschool programs are not granting to be worth of its costs. "Public preschool for younger children is irresponsible, given the failure of the public school system to educate the children currently enrolled."
Rating: 15

6) SFGate
The costs of Universal Preschool Programs.
Rating: 14

7) John Schwenkler
Some kids would benefit more from spending time with their parents during their early years than from going to preschool.
Rating: 10

8) Reason Foundation
No lasting academic value is shown by those students who participated in the Universal Preschool Program.
Rating: 17

9) Institute on Education Law and Policy
The program may hinder social development.
Rating: 8

10) Domestic Divapalooza
"The reality is that the overwhelming majority of children come from loving homes with attentive parents. Tearing children away from their homes and families for government-run, institutionalized learning programs that demonstrate absolutely no concrete benefit to the children is somewhere between sinister and cruel."
Rating: 10

11) Library of Economics and Liberty
"The only preschool programs that seem to do more good than harm are very intense interventions targeted toward severely disadvantaged kids... Even so, the economic gains of these programs are grossly exaggerated. For instance, Prof. Heckman calculated that the Michigan program produced a 16-cent return on every dollar spent -- not even remotely close to the $10 return that [its] advocates bandy about."
Rating: 10

12) Connect for Kids
This article talks about the pros and cons of Universal Preschool. Some of the cons aspects are: children would be hurt (social and emotionally), K-12 should get the money, program should target poor families, a requirement would hurt providers--and kids, existing preschools would be hurt.
Rating: 17

13) Smart Voter (Proposition 82)
This article also talks about the pros and cons of Universal Preschool. But it has a section with rebuttal to arguments in favor and against it, which is very interesting.
Rating: 8

14) Oakland Tribune
This articles talks about some cons regarding the Universal Preschool Program.
Rating: 14

15) Tennessee Center for Policy Research
"The facts, however, proved quite the opposite. The programs produce little or no demonstrable advantage despite their hefty pricetags and lofty aspirations."
Rating: 16

Friday, November 14, 2008

Let's learn together!

We are college students from Brigham Young University-Idaho, studying Developmental Psychology. This blog is an assignment from our upper level Child Development class. The objective of this assignment it to find information about the controversy over public preschool and provide information, link other web sites, to help people become informed on the topic. In the end we will have close to 90 web sites that will help us and other to become educated on this topic. We are excited to put together this blog and share with you what we are learning. Enjoy!
Shelley, Stephanie, Michelle, Erika, Tiffany and Carolina

Cons of Universal Preschool

This post will tell about he negative aspects of public, universal preschool.

Erika's 15 Websites

Canada’s Universal Childcare Hurt Children and Families (rating: 12)
This article discusses how “child outcomes have worsened since the program was introduced along a variety of behavior and health dimensions”.

Massive Study Finds Pre-School and Early Child Education Initiatives Show No Benefit (rating: 13) A six year comparison of almost 35,000 children has shown that there has been no change in developmental levels of pupils entering primary school in this period.

Preschool Inhibit’s Children’s Social Development (rating: 16)
This article discusses a study done by two colleges showing that children who attend preschool for more than fifteen hours a week display more negative social behaviors.

Preschool: Helpful, Harmful, or Simply Not Worth It? (rating: 7)
This article gives references to previous statements posted, but it also talks about how universal preschool may not be for everyone if the children have “loving and attentive parents”.

Will Universal Preschool for 3- and 4-year-olds improve academic achievement over the long term? (rating: 7)
This web site asks the title question, and citizens post their thoughts on whether academic achievement improves or not.

Staying Home With Your Children (rating: 7)
This is an article written by a mother sharing that spending time with your children is very important, and sending your children to preschool can hinder that quality time.

Universal Preschool Is No Golden Ticket (rating: 15)
Experience provides little reason to believe universal preschool would significantly benefit children, regardless of family income. For nearly 40 years, local, state, and federal governments and diverse private sources have funded early intervention programs for low-income children, and benefits to the children have been few and fleeting. There is also evidence that middle-class children gain little, if anything, from preschool. Benefits to children in public preschools are unlikely to be greater or more enduring.

Washington Policy Center (rating: 17)
This Policy Note describes the child care environment for preschoolers in Washington state, examines the claims being made by universal preschool proponents, and reviews research of existing programs in other states which shows that the educational effect of universal preschool fades out over time. Studies conclude that the highly-regulated universal preschool programs for families in Georgia,[1] Oklahoma[2] and New Jersey [3] have provided no long-lasting learning benefit to children.

Stanford University School of Education (rating: 18)
This article talks about how universal preschool can hurt the social development of children. For example, acting out or having trouble cooperating.

UC Berkeley News (rating: 12)
This article discusses how the earlier a child starts preschool, the worse their social development is. Also, it mentions how ethnicity has an effect on the outcome of universal preschool.

Preschool Education and It’s Lasting Effects (rating: 14)
Increasing child care subsidies under current federal and state policies
is particularly unlikely to produce any meaningful improvements in
children’s learning and development. Given the poor quality of much
child care, it might instead produce mild negative consequences.

Evidence of Academic or Emotional Harm
of Preschool Education or All-Day Kindergarten (rating: 14)
This article gives many examples of studies done showing that preschool children tend to be more aggressive in later elementary school years, and focuses on the negative social-emotional impact preschool has on children.

Impacts of Early Childhood Programs (rating: 12)
A portion of this article reports of the negative socio-emotional outcomes of children who attend pre-kindergarten school, and it discusses how preschool doesn’t show any health or safety outcomes.

The Influence of Preschool Centers on Children’s Development Nationwide (rating: 11)
“The effect of center attendance on children’s social development. We find that attendance in preschool centers, even for short periods of time each week, hinders the rate at which young children develop social skills and display the motivation to engage classroom tasks..”

Universal Preschool Trend Has Critics (rating: 11)
A small section of this article shows that not every state supports universal preschool because it “misses the point”. It goes on to talk about what is more important.

Tiffany's 15 Websites
1.) states who have already implimented universal preschool have failed to show any positive results. In fact, average reading and math scores have only gotten worse. Several studies have shown that even if children have an advantage from preschool, that advantage completely disappears by the second grade and there is no difference between them and the children who did not attend preschool. (Rating: 15)

2.) preschool has only shown to help those children who are very low-income and at-risk. For the majority of children who live in the middle or upper-middle class, there were no benefits shown, and even results showing that preschool could do more harm than good for children who are better off at home. For these chilren, it is unnecessary to force them into preschool. (Rating: 17)

3.) preschool is a war being launched on toddlers. Proponents for universal preschool want everyone to believe it's in the best interest of the children, but it also has a hidden agenda to take care of some adult problems as well. Such as: parents having a government-funded babysitter, a way to manage 39% of the preschool population that doesn't speak English, and boosting the agendas of special-interests groups. (Rating: 16)

4.) a mother's perpsective. An article written by a mother who, after feeling pressured to put her son in preschool to "get ahead", began to rethink the decision and finally withdrew her son. An article advocating that preschool isn't right for everyone. (Rating: 12)

5.) preschool advocates tend to think that Universal preschool will solve the problems in the K-12 system, but it won't. Money should be spent on helping those children at a disadvantage, but for the children who don't need it, it's a waste of tax-payer's dollars. Universal preschool also decreases parent's choices in preschool and puts smaller privately-owned preschools and daycare centers out of business. (Rating: 11)

6.) preschool can certainly sound appealing, but it doesn't live up to it's flouted promises. (Rating: 15)

7.) preschool does nothing for language deficiencies in children. (Rating: 10)

8.) effects that universal preschool holds in store for the state of Vermont. Arguments in favor of universal preschool are "blatantly dishonest" and misleading. (Rating: 17)

9.) short article discusses the political agenda behind universal preschool, and how the arguments for it are solely based on helping "at risk" children. (Rating: 14)

10.) article takes an in-depth look at the research that adovocates for universal preschool base their arguments on. It strongly refutes the idea that universal preschool will result in massive returns and savings on tax dollars. (Rating: 12)

11.) very well-written article in the Wall Street Journal, entitled, "Protect Our Kids from Preschool". This article discusses the claims that Barack Obama has made in regards to universal preschool and how they simply are not true. (Rating: 19)

12.) article by Michael Ackley on the government workings behind universal preschool and discussing the idea that universal preschool may start out being voluntary, but will eventually become mandatory. (Rating: 17)

13. article discusses and exposes some of the tactics and arguments that are being used to convince and "brainwash" parents that their children need to go to preschool to get an advantage, when in truth, the majority of parents can do that for their children at home. (Rating: 11)

14.) this article begins by discussing the failings of the Head Start program, it also goes on to talk about how the idea for Head Start was taking and made worse with the introduction of universal preschool. This article is in two parts, and the second part is mainly about universal preschool. (Rating: 10)

15.) article is written by a mother named Tricia S. Vaughan, who herself has struggled with the decision to send her children to preschool. She discusses how mothers are bombarded with propoganda that sends the message that they are not good enough or qualified enought to teach their children and prepare them for kindergarten, and that they are selfishly putting them at a disadvantage if they choose to teach their children at home. (Rating:9)

Thursday, November 13, 2008

Pros of Universal Preschool

Shelley's 15 Websites
This article talks about the benefits as well as the negative aspects of public preschool. For the pro-side it says that family's with lower incomes will have the opportunity to enroll their children in early education. It would benefit these children. It is an investment that will pay off.
"A federally supported universal preschool program would ensure that quality preschool education is available to every child in America."
Rating: 14
This article talks about how universal preschool will help low income send their children to preschool
Rating: 12
This is a good story about how a mother could not afford to send her child to preschool. Universal preschool would have helped her family
Rating: 10
"A profusion of studies have documented the lifelong positive impacts of quality preschool education: children are more prepared for elementary school and have more developed social skills, are less likely to need special education classes, and down the road are more likely to graduate from high school and be employed, and less likely to need public assistance or go to jail." It goes on to talk about more benefits of Universal Preschool.
Rating: 11
"…universal preschool education program in the U.S. to help give our nation's children a sound cognitive and social foundation on which to build future educational and life successes. In addition to enhanced school readiness and improved academic performance, participation in high quality preschool programs has been linked with reductions in grade retentions and school drop out rates…"
Rating: 8
"‘Universal preschool’ raises learning, lowers social costs." It talks about how Oklahoma is doing so well in Universal preschool. The teachers are qualified and are paid the same as Elementary teachers.
Rating: 14
This one talks about how there are millions in the bay area that show interest in universal preschool because of it's benefits.
Rating: 9
"Universal Preschool: A silver bullet for education reform or a waste of money?"
Rating: 16
"It appears that children who have attended high-quality preschools are better to able to meet the social and academic demands of kindergarten," This is not the best article. It takes a while to find the good things about universal preschool.
Raging: 11
This article is random people blogging about the pros and cons of universal preschool. It is interesting but not scholarly.
Rating: 8
"Over two dozen studies have shown that children who are enrolled in pre-school programs run by school districts have better math and reading abilities, are better socialized, and are more likely to graduate than children who are not in such programs." This article takes a look at the growing issue of universal preschool in St. Louis. Pretty interesting.
Rating: 13
"The children in Tulsa’s pre-K and Head Start programs experienced substantial gains in pre-reading, pre-writing and pre-math skills above and beyond those that otherwise occur through aging,” This article shows some results from the universal preschool program in Oklahoma. Interesting.
Rating: 12
"Kids Need an Early Start: Universal preschool education may be the best investment Americans can make in our children's education - and our nation's future."
Rating: 15
This is Timothy J. Bartik's research paper. He researched "The Economic Developmetn Benefits of Universal Preschool Education Campared to Traditional Economic Development Programs."
Rating: 14
Michelle's 15 Websites
"The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the literature on universal preschool in order to benefit from the experiences of other states and regions which have already implemented services targeting part or all of the preschool population. Programs targeted to low-income children have been in place since at least the mid 1960’s when Head Start was created as an early intervention program. The now extensive literature on publicly funded preschool initiatives includes forty-two states, each with its own version and unique history of implementation."
Rating: 20
The Los Angeles Universal Preschool has opened 5 new preschools in the area. "LAUP's goal is to make high-quality voluntary preschool universally accessible to every four-year-old in Los Angeles County."
Rating: 13
"Universal preschool students perform better." This article talks about studies done in Tulsa, OK and the benefits that universal preschool provides.
Rating: 15
"Research has shown that well-designed early education programs serving disadvantaged children in the year or so prior to kindergarten entry can generate benefits to government and the rest of society that outweigh the costs of the program services. As a result of this evidence and the conviction that children benefit from structured programs preparing them for school entry, enthusiasm for public-sector investment in preschool education has been growing among business leaders, policymakers, and the public. Within this context, there is growing interest in universal preschool education in California. In considering such a program, policymakers and the public focus on the potential benefits from a universal preschool program, as well as the estimated costs. This study aims to inform such deliberations by conducting an analysis of the economic returns from investing in preschool education in California."
Rating: 17
"The Yale team argues that universal preschool would improve the school-readiness of the nation’s young children, fill a gap for working families, lower the high school dropout rate, reduce crime and boost the economy."
Rating: 17
"Kids Need an Early Start: Universal preschool education may be the best investment Americans can make in our children's education - and our nation's future."
Rating: 16
"The country is making improvements in Preschool and Pre-K education, although attendence is still low among economically distadvantaged kids, Boyd says."
Rating: 10
"Universal Preschool: A Costly But Worthy Goal. A universal preschool system would provide a free education to all three-to-five year old children. The funding for these preschools needs to come primarily from state governments, but should be heavily supplemented by federal funding. Children and students at all levels would benefit from implementing a universal preschool system. However, the students who would benefit most are the students that are most commonly overlooked, children just above the poverty line. The current system of providing preschool for only some of the nation's children is unacceptable."
Rating: 16
"Over the next three to five years, business leaders should work with educators and policy-makers to realize this vision and ensure, at the very least, that the children who need it most have access to a high-quality preschool. It is possible to envision a future in which every child starts kindergarten ready to learn and 13 years later walks across a stage to accept a diploma. If we succeed, all our children will have the support and tools to achieve their dreams."
Rating: 13
"Proposition 82: Universal Preschool In a live broadcast from KQEI's Sacramento studios, Forum discusses Proposition 82, which would provide universal preschool in California, paid for by a tax on high-income taxpayers."
Rating: 10
"This summer, Congress will consider reauthorization of the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act, the Bush Administration’s centerpiece education legislation. This time around, Sen. Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.) and Rep. George Miller (D- California) are in the driver’s seat. What kind of spoils will they give their teachers union allies—perhaps funding for “universal preschool”?"
Rating: 14
"The belief is, if you give kids this opportunity at this age, they have greater self-esteem. (Universal pre-kindergarten) would reduce the dropout rate, reduce teen pregnancy and all those things," Buoniconti said. "Massachusetts is quite behind in this respect. North Carolina, New York and Connecticut are way ahead of us."
Rating: 13
"One far-reaching study, begun in the 1960s, followed a group of low- income children in Michigan from preschool through adulthood. The research, called the High/Scope Perry Preschool Study, showed children who had pre-K education were more likely to graduate from high school, less likely to go on welfare or spend time in jail, and had slightly higher incomes than those who didn't have such a learning advantage."
Rating: 9
"Barack Obama and Joe Biden believe that providing a high-quality education is key to addressing many of our country’s challenges, and that world-class public schools provide the path to global opportunity, high-quality employment and strong local communities. While we have many good schools in America, we can still do a better job educating our children and replicating and scaling up successful programs so that they are the norm across the country. We must set ambitious goals for education that include advanced 21st-Century skills, good character and informed citizenship."
Rating: 8
This video shows how Universal Preschool has helped children become successful.
Rating: 8
Stephanie's 15 Websites
The California Teachers Association (CTA) supports universal preschool. The organization believes that all children should have access to preschool. They also believe that the children’s future success in the life is directly linked to preschool.
Rating: 13

California School Board Association has done research on the effects of preschool on children. “Every $1 spent on high-quality preschool saves $7 in reduced future expenditures for special education, grade retention, crime control, welfare and lost taxes.”
Rating: 12

Los Angles Universal Preschool (LAUP) is a 5-year long program for four-year olds across the county. Its mission is to provide quality care for the children and prepare them for kindergarten.
Rating: 10

K12 believes that children who attend preschool have the upper hand when they start kindergarten. They also believe that all children deserve the chance to go to preschool, the solution to this is universal preschool.
Rating: 6

This website is an overview of the growth Universal preschool. As of 2005 only three states offered universal preschool Georgia, Oklahoma, and Florida. Many others including California, Arizona, and Washington are moving in the direction of Universal Preschool.
Rating: 18

In 2000 Oklahoma became one of the first states to support Universal Preschool. Some of the main backers were the National Association of Teachers, “supports early childhood education programs in the public schools for children from birth through age eight…these programs must be available to all children on an equal basis and should include mandatory kindergarten with compulsory attendance.”
Rating: 9

Ohio also wants to provide children with the best possible education. They believe that Universal Preschool in the best interest of the children. They will encourage parents to take advantage of this new service but its not mandatory.
Rating: 14

Preschool-for-all has had mixed reviews but the driving force for those that support Universal Preschool is to get the “at risk” children on the same playing field as other children. The states that are implementing Universal Preschool want to save on costs of “at risk” children in later years.
Rating: 5

“A federally supported universal preschool program would ensure that quality preschool education is available to every child in America. Such a program would promote school readiness by providing all children with the early education necessary to begin school ready to learn.”
Rating: 16

Children thrive in an educational environment. Universal Preschool is the best way to teach and reach these children. Children will do better in school if they start with a quality education in preschool.
Rating: 8

California is trying to implement Universal Preschool and has some big backers. The law enforcement in California is among those backers. They believe that the sooner children are in school and being taught crime will go down. Preschool prevents crime in later years of life.
Rating: 15

California prop 82 outlines the reasons why they want to implement Universal Preschool. They believe that this will improve the education that children receive and that educational performance will be better if started sooner.
Rating: 11

Illinois believes in preschool for all. “The Illinois Early Learning Council is committed to ensuring that all Illinois children are safe, healthy, eager to
learn, and ready to succeed by the time they enter school.”
Rating: 19

A concerned citizen talks about the fact that only rich people can afford high-quality preschool. He believes that by states choosing to back Universal Preschool that more children will benefit form quality preschool.
Rating: 10

A video explaining why it is important to invest in a child’s future and why preschool would be the best way for that to happen.
Rating: 5